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Feb
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Abstract

The insidious evolution of the internet into the socio cultural setting of any modern society has become something to look into. It is not however the first time scholars would take a microscopically scientific purview into the emerging phenomenon. Different scholars, theorists and researchers have dwelled into various issues appertaining to the new media. Apart from this, the act of mobilization has being a topical issue especially in the area political mobilization and synergy. Thus, it is suffice to look into how the social media can be used in the mass mobilization of people for political mobilization. This paper looks into the influence of social media on the for mass mobilization of people using the just concluded strike action in Nigeria as a case study

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The unprepared emergence of social media technology in the face of developing societies has herald change of status quo within the socio, political and economic ecological setting of any society. The advent of social networks is a cyber revolution that changed the course of time.  According to Tom Glocer, CEO of Reuters, one of the world biggest International News agencies, He believes that the era when government of a nation would filter the news of what the people listen to, hear or read is about eroding.

Apart from the fact that social media has been able to break the barrier in news reportage; making people know the true nature of happenings around them, it is now being use as tool of political propaganda, sensitization, insurgence and  a medium of dissent. The revolution of social media has created three basic things:

  • It has aided in building a politically conscious civil society over the course of a number of years prior to the Revolution.
  • It has lowered the threshold for engaging in political dissent by providing a relatively anonymous space for political debate in a country that outlaws gatherings of five or more people.
  • It has allowed organizers to plan protests more easily and anonymously.

The recent events that happened in London; London riot, in Egypt and Tunisia; the Arab spring and Middle East; Lebanon and ongoing political restiveness in Syria, came as a resultant effect of the unrestricted flow of information via the social media. Professor Norman Vaughan of king Fahid university, Saudi Arabia, believes that social media is largely responsible for the political upheaval in the middle East and the Arab world, He said the government’s effort of controlling it is seemingly failing because the text messaging which is supported by cell towers still cannot be control. He further said that government used to kill revolution by controlling the flow of information, but now, is pretty near impossible as a result of rapid technological development of the Social media.

The people that created most of the major social network sites did not envision their invention to be turned into socio- political tools. Despite the fact that different societies have restricted or totally close down their cyber virtual terrains, an act which is not legally permissible because it violates the human right: freedom of expression. Countries like China, Iran and India have created acts that completely blocks social networks as an expedient move for the survival of their nations. Country like America, who believes in the tenet of freedom of expression, has condemned such Actions.

According to (Reuters) – After the “Arab Spring” surprised the world with the power of technology to revolutionize political dissent, governments are racing to develop strategies to respond to, and even control, the new player in the political arena — social media.

In Recent times the Social media is becoming a force to reckon with in the area of bridging the gap of difference in the political arena between the ruled and the ruler. According to Alec Ross (2008), ‘We are well beyond being able to consider social media a fad,” Alec Ross was one of the creators of technology policy for Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign and now senior adviser for innovation to U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Alec said that “If you are not open to social media spaces then you are not attuned to the dynamics on the street and you sacrifice both understanding and power.” Obama also defined the social networks as an environment to stress and enhance the universal values such as freedom of speech in an interview via YouTube in the 27th of January 2011

The unparalleled outreach of social media in mass mobilization of people towards a goal or objective cannot be unbridling condemned because of the overwhelming influence of these networks in reaching the nocks and crannies of any society. The hinterland where hitherto cannot fully opined top issues of public concern are now finding their voices via these networks. Not long, the social media turn to a ‘virtual warehouse’ where opinions are gathered and cleared.

However this impact might sound, it takes years to spark into state of revolution and social media itself does not erupt revolution on its own, apparently, people, anti-governmental and civil societies, have been using social media to rise the conscious of people against the government.

Alfredo M Bonanno believes we must be ‘capable of understanding the communications of the future, because it is this that will make it possible to construct the insurrectionist instruments of the future to be put alongside the knife our predecessors carried between their teeth’. And it is in this way ‘we can build an air bridge between the tools of the past and the dimensions of the future’.

History of social media

Before the recent relevant of social media, this means of communication has suffered years of neglect. The social network was conceptualized has just a medium of interaction and virtual home to transfer or extend relationships. In 1978, Ward Christensen and Randy Suess, computer hobbyists, invented the bulletin board system (BBS). It was invented to inform friends and relatives about coming events and share information. This invention marked the beginning of revolution that change the social and global perspective of reality and virtual reality. In 1993, The university of Illinois students developed the mosaic, which was said to gave birth to the world wide web (WWW).these were the inventions that started the acceleration of social network .Beverly Hills internet launched GeoCities around this time also. It was a service that allowed for individuals to create their website. In 1994, the internet got the name information Superhigh way; signified the advent arrival of internet and a threat for the traditional media. Blogging also became popular. Within the anal of 1998, GeoCities became public. It marked the very first social network. It was created by Great Britain to locate past friends in school. However, Yahoo `bought GeoCities ($3.57 million). In same the steam, google, and AOL started operation. At the turn of millennium, about 70 million computers were connected to the world. 2003 marked a revolution with the creation of facebook and the increasing rate of using other social network; AOL hit 34million users, friend reunited hits 15million. 2006, a lot of social network companies  line up to buy facebook,Viacom and yahoo were in the lead but the deal fall through. Between the span of 2007 to 2011, a lot of social networks were established: twitter, bing, buzz, youtube and so on. About 600million people worldwide now have a home in the virtual reality

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nigeria, as a nation, has not been shielded in this global phenomenon. In the weeks past, the nation was in the waters of dissatisfaction as a result of the deregulation of the downward sector of the petroleum industries. For the very first time in a long while, Nigerians were politically awakened and there was an unprecedented grievance hitting the cloud of Nigeria terrain. The sudden awaken of Nigerians was partly to the already poverty searing situation and the ‘cyber revolution’ in Nigeria. The increase in the use of social media in Nigeria has affected positively the level of information dissemination, and bridge the gap of lacuna filtered news.

As it has become a common phenomenon with the rest of the world, the government of Nigeria seems to be in quandary about what to do with this cyber revolution. Apart from this, with a country that just granted freedom of information, it would be logically sarcastic to restrict the use of social media.

thus, this research tends to look at the way  and manner citizens, or ‘netizens’, of Nigeria’s territory were mobilized for the protest against the deregulation of the downstream sector of petroleum starting from January 1st 2012.

Hence, the research looks into the influence of social media in the mass mobilization of people for the just concluded Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) strike: a study of the university of Lagos students.


REASEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. WHAT IS THE LEVEL OF INTERNET USAGE AT THIS TIME?
  2. WHAT IS THE LEVEL OF SOCIAL MEDIA PARTICIPATION?
  3. DID YOU LEARN ABOUT THE STRIKE VIA SOCIAL MEDIA?
  4. DID YOU PARTICIPATE IN THE STRIKE?
  5. DID SOCIAL MEDIA INFLUENCE YOUR DECISION TO PARTICIPATE?

 

AIMS/ OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  • TO  THE CONSCIOUS LEVEL OF INTERNET USAGE BY NIGERIANS
  • TO KNOW  HOW MUCH NIGERIANS ARE EMBRACING THE USE OF ICT, ESPECIALLY SOCIAL MEDIA
  • TO KNOW HOW SOCIAL MEDIA IS BEING USED AS A POLITICAL TOOL
  • TO KNOW HOW SOCIAL MEDIA IS CHANGING THE POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR OF NIGERIANS;
  • AND HOW IS HAS HELP IN POLITICAL MOBILIZATION OF THE NIGERIA PEOPLE.

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The reaching hand of the social media purview, within the concept of global village, has given some restrictive measures to the government of any nation. This now an open secret that any anti-people policies will not be condoned by the people and within a split of minute the world would learn about it.

The increase in the activities of the internet tools-social networks, emails, and websites and blog sites-are becoming tools for acerbic criticism as harangue of comments would take no minute in raining on the faulting government.

Different governments of the world are becoming conscious of these information communication technologies to be potent tools that can be explored in gaining the support and ways of bridging the chasm between the governed and government

According to Dr. Ajibade, he said “ there is a solution to any problem through communication” Thus, the significance of this study is that it would help the government and the governed to see a new perspective to the usage of social media; as a tool of national integration, cohesion unity and communal  affiliation

From the happenings around the world, social media has re-engineered the thinking of the people and act as a medium of protest. This study makes a call to duty by government to explore this tool also as a medium to gain popularity on its ideological stand and policies alike.

As it has been known that every study would add to any existing knowledge on any phenomenon, this study would not cease to do the same by add to the increasing fountain of knowledge in the in using social media as a political tool and a tool of mobilization.

This study would also imply how the government can considerably reduce cost of governance by making use of social networks to communicate with the people. The cost of communicating with people by the African societies has been snare at because of excessive wastage of resources. However, social networks can bridge and reduce cost of communication through conventional method.

DELIMITATION OF STUDY

For the simple fact that research has limitation in different realm, has contributed to the restrictive hands of this study. This research did not enjoy the luxury of time and space; it would have helped in the adequate facilitation of more data gathering for and better research that would enjoy external validity.

It is not strange that the topic understudy is an analytical study that needs diverse respondents from different locations. The demography of the respondent was however restricted only to the confine of the university of Lagos and its students, who are to a large extent youths.

To light another limitation, the research encountered droughty and arid ground in the area of supporting the study claim and referencing with necessary materials

Another limitation is that fact that the materials presented are sourced from the internet, which might not be trusted some time.

 

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Internet- this is interconnectedness of computer all over the world via a central server

Social media- this is a new media that help in the interactivity of the people

Social network – these are the networks that allow for the interaction- facebook, twitter and yahoo

 Subsidy- this is the money put into something to make the cost of production less effective

Arab spring- This was a revolution that happened in the Arab world-Egypt and Tunisia

Mobilization – this is the deliberate act of conveying people to support a certain course

Influence – This is the effect of something on another

Netizens – this is term used for people on the who have virtual homes online the internet

 REFERENCES

Online sources

  • Wikipedia-www.wikipedia.com
  • Guardian news- www.guardiannews.com (a US based newspaper)
  • Reuters homepage- www.reuters.com
  • The nation newspaper online; article on Nigeria protest of January 10,2012

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter is to establish a theoretical outline. The literature presented in this chapter deals with research findings on the social media as a platform for mobilization of the Public. All the literature is descried and explained in order to build a theoretical background for the study.

Definition of Social Media

Social media are media designed to be disseminated through social interaction, using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media use web-based technologies to transform and broadcast media monologues into social media dialogues. They support the democratization of knowledge and information and transform people from content consumer to content producer.

Social media are distinct from industrial or traditional media, such as government and private owned print and broadcast medium. They are relatively inexpensive and accessible to enable anyone to publish or access information, compared to industrial media, which generally require significant resources to publish information.

Some media technology include; logs, picture-sharing, vlogs, wall-posting, email, instant messaging, music-sharing, crowdsourcing and voice over IP, to mention a few. Many of these social media services can e integrated via social network aggregation platform like Myblogblog and plaxo.

Weber uses “social web” instead of social media, and defines the social web as the online place where people with a common interest gather to share thoughts, comments, and opinions. It includes social networks such as Myspace, Faceook, Twitter, hi5 etc. the social we is a new world of unpaid media created by individuals or enterprises on the web and they include:

  • Reputation aggregators: search engines such as Google, Yahoo! ETC THEY AGGREGATE sites with the best product or services to offer and usually put things in order of reputation.
  • Blogs: online journals where people can post ideas, images and links to other web pages or sites. Some appear on personal or corporate sites, while others are hosted on Blogger, BlogHer (for women), Weblog, Tumblr and other blogging sites (Weer 2009)
  • Microblogs: Twitter is a social networking and microblogging service that enables its users to send and read messages known as tweets . Tweets are text based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on authours profile page and delivered to authours followers who are known as followers . senders can restrict delivery to those in their circle of friends or by defaults allow open access
  • Social networks are places where people with a common interest or concern come together to meet with similar interest, express themselves and communicate. In addition to the ones above mentioned are also for example Xanga, Stumleupon. Some sites are devoted specifically to image-sharing such as Flicker and some video-sharing, YouTube which serves 10 billion videos a month to US viewers alone.


SOCIAL MEDIA AND MASS MOBILIZATION

The recent events in Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt, and Lebanon, though alarming (if not tragic), are rather provocative and interesting in regards to how each was influenced by social media utilities, whether it served as a catalyst or further fuel for mass mobilization.

 Clay Shirky, Professor of New Media at New York University entitled wrote an article entitled “The Political Power of Social Media.” In the article, Shirky outlines some of the ways social media has mobilized groups recently for political actions, and whether it has been successful as in the case of (effectively) ousting presidents Joseph Estrada of the Philippines, or Jose Maria Aznar, former Prime Minister of Spain, or whether it has been unsuccessful such as the 2006 protests against Belorussian president, Aleksandr Lukashenko.

When these social media organized demonstrations have proved successful, terrific, but when they have proved ineffective like in Belarus, consequences often follow the demonstrations.  Belarus, for example, cracked down on personal communications and social networking sites to prevent any similar event from occurring again.  Iran beat everyone into submission (physically, mentally) and then put blocks on social media access.

Shirky accurately and concisely mentions the difference between various social mediums and their effectiveness.  He brings up the difference between informational sites, networking sites, internet mobile messaging (like Twitter), internet forums, and cellular messaging (SMS, group SMS).  Though the U.S. State Department has made it a goal to promote access to information via sites like Google and Wikipedia, it fell short on advocating for the protection of freedom in regards to social media and private channels of communication and discussion.

Examining it from this perspective, it is apparent that these events have not been a Googelution, and in all likelihood, there will never be one.  These sites might provide information about why one might want to organize a demonstration, how one could go about organizing a demonstration, and show pictures of a nearby demonstration, but it can’t actually start a demonstration…no matter how many hits a website has, it is still just a website.

It is in the processing and use of the information from these sites that demonstrations/protests/revolutions get started.  Once someone has some information they feel is relevant, it is shared with a number of other individuals.  This used to be done primarily in tea and coffee shops, on university campuses, and on street corners.  People sat, drank, and discussed, each individual fully engaged in the others every word.  Today, this is still done in fast food /canteen, on university campuses, and on street corners, but people are relying less on face-to-face conversation, and focusing more on getting the information out more publicly and less directly through social networking and communication sites.

 

NIGERIA AND SOCIAL MEDIA MASS MOBILIZATION

The first time a massive new ground was broken via the social media in ways never seen before. Was when Goodluck Jonathan, the 2011 elected president of Nigeria, took the extraordinary step of announcing his bid for the highest office on Facebook. On Wednesday, 15 September 2010, he informed his 217,000-plus fans on the world’s most popular networking platform of his intent. Twenty four hours later, 4,000 more fans joined his page. By the day of the election, on 16 April 2011, he had over half a million followers.

Mr. Jonathan’s online campaign was only one illustration of the social media fever that gripped Africa’s most populous country (with around 150 million people) during its most recent presidential, parliamentary and local elections.

Little did the world know that the Election mobilization via the social media was a tip of the Iceberg.

Unsurprisingly, social media use reached its peak during the just resolved National strike masterminded by the NLC and TUC, giving room for their ordinary citizens are communicating via Twitter, Facebook and other forms of social media. The actions followed expressions of anger over the press coverage on social media, particularly Twitter, where the hash tag #OccupyNigeria has become a global trend since January 3, according to Trendistic.

In time past the mobilization of the Public, in showing disinterest towards government has never been so easy in Nigeria as majority the traditional media in the country fear the consequences that may come upon their Organization but with the emergence of the Social media all things fall in place and play out effectively and coordinated since the Government has no monopoly over it. In recent times the social media has served as a platform for interest aggregation and Mass mobilization of the public for a greater good as the government have no way of intercepting messages being received by the end-users without it being charged as an invasion of Privacy.

Youtube was founded in February 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim to enable Americans share videos among loved ones. Today, it has become the new face of modern cinema where videos of the famous Arab Spring and Occupy Movement are being disseminated. Twitter was founded in 2006 by Jack Dorsey. The faintest thought that it could be used to organize mass movements against autocratic governments in the Middle East was out of the equation.

The most popular website, Facebook, founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, was privately developed so that he could communicate with his folks in the campus. He did not realize that an Otueke-born Zoologist would be named a ‘Facebook President’ by CNN during his presidential campaigns in 2010/2011. Research In Motion (manufacturers of Blackberries) was incorporated in 1984 by Mike Lazarridis. He didn’t foresee the new perspectives it would introduce to global discourses and businesses.

Nigeria, with its population of 158.3 million in 2010, is home to the greatest number of Internet users in Africa (53.4 million in 2010). The country has a dynamic telecom market, but due to low disposable incomes, there were only 1.4 million PC users in the country in 2010.

According to statistics from Statcounter, the largest African mobile phone user base can also be found in Nigeria with over 93 million subscribers registered as of September 2011. Mobile browsing has overtaken desktop browsing in Nigeria, making it the first in Africa to experience this.

As we have seen during the protests, thousands of Nigerians are using Twitter, blogs, YouTube, Flickr and Facebook to share information, photos and opinions.

The wind of social media usage has gradually blown to this part of the World allowing those that are ICT literate to effectively digest and communicate information through it and for those who are not ICT literate it has provided a room for them to gradually catch up through the use of easy to understand interface.

In the days leading to the mass protests and nationwide strike, Nigerians had raised alarm over government’s plans to shut down Blackberry services wary of the gathering storm of public resentment against fuel subsidy removal. Alarmed by this rumour, Blackberry users in Nigeria, numbering over 300, 000 started posting messages on the internet and through their Blackberry Messenger. In a swift response, management of the Nigeria Communications Commission (NCC), MTN, Gloacom and Etisalat rebuffed the claims.

In recent days, activists, opposition leaders and ordinary Nigerians have used the social media network to disseminate information on venues for protests. Gaffes by supporters of fuel subsidy removal have also been tweeted, facebooked and broadcast through Blackberries. Gory images and videos depicting President Goodluck Jonathan as the villain of the Nigerian people have been exchanged through these media. Reports of violence, killings and police brutality towards protesters are first transmitted through the social media network. Media houses in Nigeria have also seized the window of opportunity presented by the social media network to reach out to the young Nigerian audience.

President Jonathan also acknowledged the power of the social media network when he lamented in Abuja recently, during the launch of the public mass transit buses that:

“There are a lot of mischief makers going around to misinform Nigerians, especially through social networks like the Twitter, Blackberry, Facebook and others – to communicate very wrong things to Nigerians.”

Popular entertainers have also been using the social media network to criticise President Jonathan’s fuel subsidy removal.

Eldee, the multi-talented entertainer wrote the following on his twitter page: “Why should President Jonathan budget a billion naira for his generators and diesel when he is urging us to believe in his power sector reform? Why does our president need nine private jets and then have the audacity to come on TV and claim to “feel the pain” of Nigerians? Why should we believe the government when it says the subsidy gain will be properly reinvested? A government should lead by example…by example you must not own generators, travel abroad for health care or send your kids abroad to school.”

Music artiste and comedian, Sound Sultan has also been mobilising for mass protests through his Twitter page. He tweeted the following: “The only place in the world where you have to provide your own light, water, security and tar the road is Nigeria. In Nigeria, new regimes are always worse than the former and we are going to occupy the streets until government listens to us.”

One of Nigeria’s finest music producers, Don Jazzy posted the following on his Twitter page about the fuel subsidy removal: “I hardly ever regret decisions I make. That my one vote added to put the current government in power is one decision I regret with all my heart. What I don’t know is if the man we all voted for deceived us, knowing that he would turn out to be like this, or is there someone else leading us? God help us.”

Pastor Tunde Bakare, Dele Momodu, Nasir el-Rufai, Seun Kuti, Fela Durotoye, students, angry Nigerians, journalists, etc, have been mobilising massively through the social media network.

A mass protest that started small in tiny towns and villages could degenerate and shake the very foundations of this country. The power of the social media network in shaping modern day discourses can’t be under-estimated. The mass movement might not achieve its desired goals, but the role of social media in reawakening social awareness among Nigerians will go down in history as uniquely phenomenal. Like the Arab Spring and Occupy Movement in the United States, Nigeria is taking the lead in sub-Sahara Africa as the face of modern emancipation, and the social media network must be credited for that feat.

#Occupy Nigeria

Occupy Nigeria is a protest movement that began in Nigeria on Monday, 2 January 2012 in response to the fuel subsidy removal by the Federal Government of President Goodluck Jonathan on Sunday, 1 January 2012. Protests have taken place across the country, including in the cities of Kano, Ojota, Abuja, and at the Nigerian Embassy in London. At least 16 people have been killed in Nigeria, all shot dead by the Nigeria Police Force. The protests have been characterized by civil disobedience, civil resistance, strike actions, demonstrations and online activism. The use of social media such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and the Blackberry Messenger has been a prominent feature that made the protest coordinated and a Success

Nigeria is Africa‘s biggest oil producer, but still imports refined petrol. The country produces about 2.4 million barrels of crude oil daily which is exported to be refined abroad; however due to years of corruption-fueled neglect the domestic refineries are inoperative. As a consequence, Nigeria imports 70% of its gasoline (about 250,000bpd of petroleum productsinto the country for sale to its citizens. The price of petrol has increased from 65 naira ($0.40; £0.26) per litre to at least 141 naira in filling stations  and from 100 naira to at least 200 naira on the black market, from which many Nigerians buy their fuel

With the majority of Nigerians living on less than $2 per day, cheap petrol is viewed by many Nigerians as the only tangible benefit they receive from the state, hence the widespread disapproval. In addition, the economy is heavily reliant on crude oil (amongst other reasons, due to absence of essential infrastructure and services such as constant electricity). A consequence of this is that other seemingly unrelated items are tied to the price of fuel as has occurred from previous price hikes. Due to the absence of stable electricity, gasoline generators are a common energy alternative for small businesses and residences.

Protesters shut petrol stations and formed human barriers along motorways. Nigeria’s main trade unions have also announced an indefinite strike and mass demonstrations from Monday, 9 of January 2012 unless the removal of a fuel subsidy is reversed.

It is claimed that the Government of Nigeria has always budgeted enough resources for the comfort of its officials, while disregarding that of the people. The supposed flagrant disregard for the people’s welfare by removal of the fuel subsidy without putting in place programs to cushion the effect, coupled with the fact that they (government) have not led by example in sacrificing their huge salaries and allowances (which is further claimed to be the highest in the world), has necessitated the Occupy Nigeria protests.

The protest aims to among other things:

  • First, force the Nigerian government to return to the status quo and cause petrol to be sold at the previous rate of 65 naira per litre.
  • The cost of maintaining public officials has skyrocketed over the past decade and this has to be stopped. The Nigerian President budgets N45 million for the purchase of kitchen and household equipment, while N293 million will be used for “refreshment”. The US president reportedly pays for most of his and his family’s dry-cleaning, meals and drinks. Barack Obama can only expect free meals at official dinners, especially when hosting foreign dignitaries. Nigerians will believe that government is merely taxing them to subsidise the life of ease and luxury of public officials.
  • Get the government to provide improved infrastructure, eradicate corruption and nepotism.
  • Get Nigerians to be more involved in the activities of their government.
  • Weaken (and possibly eliminate) the existing “power cabal”.

Casualties

Muyideen Mustapha, 23, was reportedly the first person to be killed during the nationwide protests over the lifting of petrol subsidies. He was reportedly shot by the Nigerian Police Force in Ilorin, Kwara State on 3 January 2012. Police denied the report saying that he had been stabbed by other protestors for not joining in the protest. Muyideen was buried on Wednesday 4 January 2012, according to Islamic rites but didn’t die in vain as the social media was used in agitating the circumstance that led to his death. The popular post office junction in Ilorin, Kwara State was renamed after him.The junction is now Muyideen Mustapha freedom square

There have been further reports of one to three people being killed by clashes between police and protesters on January 9.

On January 9, a Divisional Police Officer attached to the Lagos State Command, shot and killed a young man, Ademola Aderinde at Ogba during the protests in Lagos. The officer was arrested on the order of the Commissioner of Police and is expected to be charged with murder following an investigation.

The Occupy Nigeria protests have also occurred in other countries to show solidarity with what the plight of Nigerians back home. The first one was held at the Nigerian Embassy in London on January 6, 2012, followed by another at the World Bank complex in Washington D.C on January 9. 2012. Other countries like Belgium and Brussels joined the protests and occupied the Nigerian embassy in their countries in the second week of January 2012.

These four tools enumerated above harnessed during the Occupy Nigeria in Various ways and made the protest the most coordinated and mobilized nationwide protest in the History of Nigeria.

Youtube: Video footages were posted on YouTube during the Occupy Nigeria showing their uttermost disinterest towards the unfavorable policy. Videos of the protest across the Country and even in Diaspora were posted. A musical video was shot titled Hear the Voice during the Occupy Nigeria protest in Ojota Some of the clips can be viewed on

Facebook: (Occupy Nigeria) a facebook page was opened for Occupy Nigeria to act as a channel/medium of mobilizing the public and aggregating interest. It also served as a medium through which the Public received realtime feeds of the protest happenings all over the country

Twitter: (@OccupyNigeria ) The traffic of facebook did not stop people from realtime tweeting and retweeting  on OccupyNigeria. Under the Twitter hash-tag Occupy Nigeria, Nigerians have shared photos of dead protestors. Their tweets are debunking local news coverage, and spreading word of lavish spending by government officials

“NTA fools showing us how to swim when thr are better things to know!” read a tweet by @I_Am_Shattay. “Massive media campaign to promote subsidy removal, misleading, and further waste of money #occupynigeria #shameonGEJ” tweeted Louis Monye, blasting President Goodluck Jonathan

For some, new media was the order of the day. “NTA is old media. SHUT THEM DOWN,” tweeted @boycottPDP. “If traditional local media won’t work for #OccupyNigeria, invade socialmedia without limits until the whole world hears,” said Collins Olua. “Take pictures. Record videos. Share via twitter, facebook, youtube, etc. They’ll encourage others to join us, and tell the world our story!” tweeted Gbenga Sesan.

Blogs: Bloggers poured out their feelings through various dimensions

Blackberry Messenger: Blackberry messenger seemed to have been the major conveyor as Broadcast were sent on the go in real-time during the Protest that the Government could not help but decry the effect the messages had on them

Blogger El-rufai (39,000 followers on twitter) released details of 2012 budget for Nigeria contained in over 50 documents to the general public and blogger Omojuwa (11,000 followers on twitter) shared a document called ‘What every protester must know and what to say to the press.’

On Wednesday morning @EiENigeria tweeted: ‘FLASH: #OccupyNigeria. Please call people in #Minna for calm. Anger turned towards IBB and Governor owned properties. We don’t need this.’ Another tweet (by @ESSDonli): ‘If you see a fellow protester going astray, it is your duty, your obligation to let him know. Peace is our foundation. #occupyNigeria’

Other tweets are less serious: (by@occupynigeria): ‘It is d official day to UNLIKE him on Facebook. Let’s change d 685,015 number of Nigerians dat LIKE to 000000 within 2 days. (Pls RT).’ This tweet was about unlinking President Jonathan on Facebook.

Hackers, united under @NaijaCyberHack brought down the ministry of agriculture website on Monday, leaving a message on the homepage behind:

“Nigerians are stirring and with it, revolution is brewing. Perhaps you see yourselves at the eye of the storm, luxuriating in peace and tranquility while all around is ripped apart and made anew. The recent cutting of the fuel subsidies by you is the last straw. Your horrendous actions have crossed the lines. Your crimes have united this great melting pot into a white hot alloy of rage.” The website is still not up and running after the attack.

On Flickr Occupy Nigeria builds a database with photo’s

In the days leading to the mass protests and nationwide strike, Nigerians had raised alarm over government’s plans to shut down Blackberry services wary of the gathering storm of public resentment against fuel subsidy removal. Alarmed by this rumour, Blackberry users in Nigeria, numbering over 300, 000 started posting messages on the internet and through their Blackberry Messenger. In a swift response, management of the Nigeria Communications Commission (NCC), MTN, Globacom and Etisalat rebuffed the claims.

The Occupy Nigeria activists, opposition leaders and ordinary Nigerians used the social media network to disseminate information on venues for protests. Gaffes by supporters of fuel subsidy removal have also been tweeted, facebooked and broadcast through Blackberries. Gory images and videos depicting President Goodluck Jonathan as the villain of the Nigerian people have been exchanged through these media. Reports of violence, killings and police brutality towards protesters are first transmitted through the social media network. Media houses in Nigeria have also seized the window of opportunity presented by the social media network to reach out to the young Nigerian audience..

 

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The theoretical frame work considered to best suit this research are the

  • Technological Determinism theory by Marshal Mc luhan (1968)
  • Agenda Setting theory by Maxcomb and Donald Shaw (19776/77)

Technological determinism coined by Thorstein Veblen is a theory that postulates that a society’s technology drives the development of its social structure and Cultural value. However, the theory was related to the media by Marshal Mc luhan in 1968.

TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM

BY MARSHALL MCLUHAN

Marshall McLuhan was a brilliant Canadian scholar who failed grade six, and who then went on to earn five University degrees, including a doctorate in English from Cambridge University.

McLuhan fell out of favour by the time he died in 1980. However, he has now become the celestial hero of the electronic age, for he prophesied what has come to pass. The Internet and the World Wide Web have now created the “global village”, that McLuhan envisioned in the 60’s.

He believed that the new electronic media have radically altered the way people think, feel and act. He predicted that we would be in the midst of a revolution, and that the world will never be the same.

COMMUNICATION INVENTIONS:

4 Periods

  1. Tribal age
  2. Literate age
  3. Print age
  4. Electronic age

According to McLuhan, the crucial inventions that changed life on this planet were the phonetic alphabet, the printing press and the telegraph.

Phonetic alphabet catapulted the human race into an age of literacy

Gutenberg’s press launched the Industrial Revolution

WE SHAPE OUT TOOLS AND THEY IN TURN SHAPE US

Technological Determinism means inventions in technology invariably cause cultural change. Put another way, the modes of communication shape human existence.

Harold Innis suggested that sudden extensions of communication are reflected in cultural disturbances.

McLuhan unique in claiming that channels of communication are the primary cause of cultural change

Family life, the workplace, schools, health care, friendship, religion, recreation, politics are all touched by communication technology.

McLuhan viewed every new form of media innovation to be an extension of some human faculty

Book is an extension of the eye.

Wheel is an extension of the foot.

Clothing is an extension of the skin.

Electronic circuitry or the computer is an extension of the central nervous system.

MCLUHAN DEFINES MEDIA AS ANYTHING THAT AMPLIFIES OR INTENSIFIES A BODILY ORGAN, SENSE OR FUNCTION.

Media extend our reach and increase our efficiency. Also act to filter or organize and interpret our social existence.

THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE

The way we live is largely a function of the way we process information.

The phonetic alphabet, the printing press and the telegraph were turning points because they changed the way people thought about themselves and their world.

THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES RADICALLY ALTER THE WAY PEOPLE USE THEIR 5 SENSES. CONTENT OR THE MESSAGE PLAYS A SUBORDINATE ROLE.

THE MEDIUM IS THE MASSAGE

THE MEDIUM IS THE MASS-AGE

A MEDIA ANALYSIS OF HISTORY-McLuhan supported his thesis for technological determinism by interpreting the sweep of human history from a media perspective.

  1. THE TRIBAL AGE. AN ACOUSTIC PLACE IN HISTORY

An oral culture based on the ear.

  1. THE AGE OF LITERACY: A VISUAL POINT

The alphabet fell into the acoustic world like a bombshell, installing sight at the head of the hierarchy of senses.

Literacy jarred people out of collective tribal involvement into a “civilized” private detachment.

It emphasized an orderly line of connected linear logic.

  1. THE PRINT AGE; PROTOTYPE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

If the phonetic alphabet made visual dependence possible, the printing press made it widespread.

The print revolution demonstrated mass production of identical products. McLuhan called it the “fore runner” of the industrial revolution.

  1. THE ELECTRONIC AGE: THE RISE OF THE GLOBAL VILLAGE

Electronic media are retribalizing the human race

Instant communication has returned us to a pre-alphabet oral tradition where sound and touch are more important than sight. “We have gone back to the future”.

We are a global village in touch with everyone, everywhere, all-at-once- all-the-time-instantaneously

Closed human systems no longer exist.
Change: technology is seen as ‘the prime mover’ in history. In economics, this is known as a ‘technology-push’ theory rather than a ‘demand-pull’ theory. According to technological determinists, particular technical developments, communications technologies or media, or, most broadly, technology in general are the sole or prime antecedent causes of changes in society, and technology is seen as the fundamental condition underlying the pattern of social organization.

Technological determinism has been defined as an approach that identifies technology, or technological advances, as the central causal element in processes of social change (Croteau and Hoynes). As a technology is stabilized, its design tends to dictate users’ behaviors, consequently diminishing human agency. This stance however ignores the social and cultural circumstances in which the technology was developed. Sociologist Claude Fischer (1992) characterized the most prominent forms of technological determinism as “billiard ball” approaches, in which technology is seen as an external force introduced into a social situation, producing a series of ricochet effects

The recent upheaval in Nigeria socio political scale bringing the people to the streets of Nigeria was supported by the technological determinism. The use of social media to mobilize the people for the protest was an indication that a change in technological advancement can cause a change in both the social and political setting of any society.

The theory proved the fact that technology can shape and reshape human society. The new media, social media, changed the perception of  Nigeria towards politic, which is hitherto in apathy.

:

Agenda setting

The creation of what the public thinks is important…

History and Orientation

Agenda setting describes a very powerful influence of the media – the ability to tell us what issues are important. As far back as 1922, the newspaper columnist Walter Lippman was concerned that the media had the power to present images to the public. McCombs and Shaw investigated presidential campaigns in 1968, 1972 and 1976. In the research done in 1968 they focused on two elements: awareness and information. Investigating the agenda-setting function of the mass media, they attempted to assess the relationship between what voters in one community said were important issues and the actual content of the media messages used during the campaign. McCombs and Shaw concluded that the mass media exerted a significant influence on what voters considered to be the major issues of the campaign.

Core Assumptions and Statements

Core: Agenda-setting is the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media. Two basis assumptions underlie most research on agenda-setting: (1) the press and the media do not reflect reality; they filter and shape it; (2) media concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues. One of the most critical aspects in the concept of an agenda-setting role of mass communication is the time frame for this phenomenon. In addition, different media have different agenda-setting potential. Agenda-setting theory seems quite appropriate to help us understand the pervasive role of the media (for example on political communication systems).

Statement: Bernard Cohen (1963) stated: “The press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about.”

Nigeria case it has been seen over the years that the contemporary media dictates the agenda for the people that is why most of the government world own media. This situation is also in vogue in Nigeria. The Nigeria government, both state and federal, has media especially electronic media. This is for the purpose of propaganda and manipulation of truth.

But of recent, the emergence of social media have bridge the gap of lies and propaganda because there is a breakage in the gate-keeping method. Most of the information received on social media is uncensored and unadulterated. This simply signifies a change in the status quo. Although, the contemporary media still dictate what to believe or know because of the socio economic situation of the third world countries, Nigeria inclusive.

The social media are becoming the unconventional means of breaking the barrier of knowing the truth.

In line with just concluded strike action in Nigeria, the information gotten from various social networks acted as an impetus that ignited the feeling of consciousness among the people which invariably mobilized the people to protest and voiced their grievances.

Thus, the theory support the fact that media dictate what people would like to

 know because the media have a liberal view   of things of the world (Elizabeth,19


REFERENCES

Kleinnijenhuis, J. & Rietberg, E.M. (1995). Parties, media, the public and the economy: Patterns of societal agenda-setting. European journal of political research: official journal of the European Consortium for Political Research, 28(1), 95-118

McCombs, M.E & Shaw, D. (1972). The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media (36; 176-187) Newway publisher, New York, USA

McCombs, M.E. (1972). Mass Communication in Political Campaigns: Information, Gratification and Persuasion. In: Kline, F. & Tichenor, Ph.J. (Eds.) Current Perspectives in Mass Communication Research. Beverly Hills, CA.: Sage.

McCombs, M.E. (1982). The Agenda-Setting Approach In: Nimmo, D. & Sanders, K. (Eds.) Handbook of Political Communication. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

McCombs, M.E., & Shaw, D.L. (1972). The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36 (Summer,176-187),  Newway publisher, New York, USA

McCombs, ME., & Weaver D. (1973). Voters’ Need for Orientation and Use of Mass Communication. Presented at the annual conference of the International Communication Association. Montreal, Canada.

McCombs, M.E., & Weaver, D. (1985). Toward a Merger of Gratifications and Agenda-Setting Research. In: Rosengren, K.E., Wenner, L.A. & Palmgreen, P. (Eds.) Media Gratifications Research: Current Perspectives. Beverly Hills, CA.: Sage.

McCombs M.E., Shaw, D.L., & Weaver, D.L. (1997). Communication and Democracy: Exploring the Intellectual Frontiers in Agenda-Setting Theory. Mahwah, N.J. Lawrence Erlbaum, Bennet Prints, New York, USA

Rogers, E.M., & Dearing, J.W. (1988). Agenda-setting research: Where has it been? Where is it going? In: Anderson, J.A. (Ed.). Communication yearbook 11 (555-594). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Rogers, E.M., Hart, W. B., & Dearing, J.W. (1997). A paradigmatic history of agenda-setting research. In Iyengar, S. & Reeves, R. (Eds.) Do the media govern? Politicians, voters, and reporters in America (225-236). Thousand Oak, CA: Sage.

ONLINE SOURCES

www.saharareporters.com
www.Omojuwa.com
www.CP–Africa.com
http://ynaija.com
http://bayoomoboriowo.com/2012/01/occupy-nigeria-the-lagos-protest – photography
http://el-rufai.org
www.battabox.com/
www.naijablog.co.uk
http://kayodeogundamisi.blogspot.com/

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

In social science statistics and studies, the need to quantify the human behavioral attitude towards a certain phenomenon is of great significance to the development of social ecology of the any society. It is however imperative to note that there are different means of achieving this; content analysis, survey, historical method, experiment and ethnography

Peculiarly, in the area of media or communication research, survey is the most used and acceptable or the most popular. This is because of its generic applicability to social science research. The use of survey is always an audience based method; checking the validity of a phenomenon, emerging or established, with the opinion of people about it. It pertinent to know that survey is applicable to a certain number of people that are affected by the phenomenon, the demography of those subjects also a matter of concern: if the phenomena affect just the young people, the survey would base on the young people.

According to Tejumaiye, (2008), quoting Maricia S. Aron he said survey is a method for collecting and analyzing social data via highly structured and often very detailed interviews or questionnaire in order to obtain information from large numbers of respondents presumed to be the representative of a specific population. However, care must be taking in the choice to know the type of survey the researcher used. The analytical survey was fancied by the researcher because the phenomena being understudy is based on critical evaluation of social media and its influence on people for mass mobilization.

However, in this studies : The Influence Of Social Media In The Mass Mobilization Of People In The Just Concluded Strike: A Study Of  Students Of University Of Lagos

Survey method was used to achieve the outcome of the study. This comes under these headings:

  • Population
  • Research design
  • Sampling method/plan
  • Data collection instrument
  • Data collection procedure
  • Data analysis procedure

POPULATION

In every social science research, there must be population by which the prevailing phenomena deed affected. In this study, the research looked at the population of the University of Lagos students to carry out his survey.  Although the phenomena affected cross section of different demographical individuals, the population chosen that is, university of Lagos students, is equally a good population to achieve the study’s aims.

 

SAMPLING METHOD

According to Sobowale (1983), he opined that sampling is done to in order that the researcher may take some elements, subjects or respondents in the population to represent that population. Thus, the sampling method for this research was simple random and stratified sampling; the stratified sampling was used to streamline the validity of being  students, so the researcher only gave the questionnaire to only students with the school Identity card. The respondents were selected out of the population of the university of Lagos students

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT

As one of the most popular methods of social science research is survey, so is the most popular instrument of the survey is the questionnaire. In this research, the researcher made use of the questionnaire to gather data for analysis.

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

From the above, it is apparent that questionnaire was used and it was personally administered to the respondents. The respondents answered the entire question without influence of intimidation from any quarters.

DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

This research extensively presented its outcome with a graphical presentation. Data presentation and analysis are basically in frequency and percentage. And for easy eyes location of data, the researcher deemed fit to present the outcomes of data in table and other graphical representations. The data presented was in both in univariate and bivariate.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Online Sources

Books

  • Tejumaiye, Adepoju (2008), communication research: an introduction, Sceptre Prints, Lagos
  • Young, P.V and schmid, C.F. (1966) scientific social surveys and research, New Jersey Prentice. Hall Inc., Earglewood cliffs
  • Wimmer, R.D.and Dominick, J.R. (1987) Mass media research; an introduction, California: wardworth Publishing company

CHAPTER FOUR

EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION

Introduction

This chapter dwells in the graphical presentation of study’s findings. It is peculiar of all researches to have a simple presentation of outcome; one of the beauty of scientific method. Is it, however, pertinent to note that scientific method does not call for over simplification of data. Thus, it is rational for researcher to speak with graphics and make some explanation in line with the garnered data.

This research would tender the ability of scientific presentation as it is peculiar to it. In line with the research questions, the questionnaire was analyzed and presented below

REASEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. WHAT IS THE LEVEL OF INTERNET USAGE AT THIS TIME?
  2. WHAT IS THE LEVEL OF SOCIAL MEDIA PARTICIPATION?
  3. DID YOU LEARN ABOUT THE STRIKE VIA SOCIAL MEDIA?
  4. DID YOU PARTICIPATE IN THE STRIKE?
  5. DID SOCIAL MEDIA INFLUENCE YOUR DECISION TO PARTICIPATE?

 

Population

A total of 50 questionnaires were sent out, 48 were brought in :

48/50 * 100/1 = 96%

Gender

Sex

No

Percentage

 Male

31

65%

female

17

35%

Total

48

100%

 

Research question one:  what is your level of internet usage at this time?

The first research question seeks to know the level by which the youths understand what internet is and of internet usage amongst the youths at the time of the strike

Do you know what internet is?

Answer

No of people

Percentage

        yes

48

100%

 No

_

-

Do you make use of internet?

Answer

No of people

percentage

yes

48

100%

No

_

-

Total

48

100%

How often do you make use of the internet?

Answer

No of people

Percentage

Very often

36

77%

Not very often

12

23%

Total

48

100

With what device do you use to connect?

Answer

No of people

Percentage

        Pc

8

16

phone

6

-13

both

34

71

total

48

100

 

What do you do most on the internet?

Answer

No of people

Percentage

      Social networking

34

71

research

9

19-

both

5

10

total

48

100

The first research question was to know the level of internet awareness and the usage of the internet. It was seen that apparently the totality of the respondents knew what is internet is, that is, the sampling chosen have the deep knowledge of the internet. The respondents make use of the internet one way or the other. About 71% of the respondents connect to the internet via both phone and the computer and 77% make use of the internet very often. To ascertain what the respondents do on internet when on it, 71% of the respondents believed that they spend most of their time on the social network instead of research (19%).

Research question two, what is the level of social media participation?

The second research question was to seek the level of social media participation during this time.

What is the level of social media usage during this time?

Answer

No of people

 

Percentage

 

Very high

11

23%

Medium

22

46%

Low

5

10%

Non responsive

 10

21%

Total

48

100%

 

Where did you learn about the strike?

Answer

No  of people

Percentage

Television

20

42%

Radio

9

19%

Newspaper

8

17%

Internet

11

23%

Total

48

100%

 


Did you participate in the just concluded strike?

Answer

No of people

Percentage

Yes

5

10%

No

43

90%

Total

48

100%

 

Answer

No of people

Percentage

Yes

44

92%

            No

4

8%

Total

48

100

Were the information gotten from the social media during the strike action real?

Do you know about the occupy Nigeria concept?

Answer

No of people

percentage

Yes

37

77%

No

11

23%

Total

48

100%

Did the occupy Nigeria concept gave useful information during the strike?

Answer

No of people

Percentage

Yes

37

77%

No

11

23%

Total

48

100%

Answer

 No of people

Percentage

Yes

47

98%

No

1

2%

Total

48

100%

Do you think that social media help in the mobilization of people for the protest during the strike?

 

 

Discussion

The graphics representation presented above has shown the fact that social media act as a contributing agent to the mass mobilization of people during the strike. 92% of the people believed in the veracity of the information received on the social media concerning the strike action. The occupy Nigeria concept, a concept popularized during the strike action, enjoyed some level of    awareness as 44% of the respondents learned about the concept via social media

A point should be clear here, that contemporary media, like TV, radio and Newspaper, still stand higher in mobilization people because of the socio economic factors in access the internet.

Leave that at it may, the social media provided for information that acts as catalyst for people reaction during the industrial strike action.

The findings however answered our research questions that:

What is the level of internet usage at this time?

What is the level of social media participation?

Did you learn about the strike via social media?

Did you participate in the strike?

Did social media influence your decision to participate?

The presentation well established the fact that people are attuned to what internet means and what it does, not only that, they are also high degree of internet usage. Amongst the selected respondents, the recognition, usage and awareness of social media functionalities were not oblivious to them.  So, it was not a different tone when the strike was on for the respondents not make use of the social media to vent their opinion on what was happening within the country then.

The respondents were not left out in voicing their opinions concerning the strike action; in a way, the respondents believe that that is a way of participation in the matter of the moment. In analysis, they believed that social media helped, although not the main factor, in the mass mobilization of people for the Nigeria Labour Congress and Trade Union Congress led strike action on Jan 9, 2012.

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION

Introduction

The explosive growth of Social Media has provided millions of people the opportunity to create and share content on a scale barely imaginable a few years ago. Massive participation in these social networks is reflected in the countless number of opinions, news and product reviews that are constantly posted and discussed in social sites such as Facebook, Youtube and Twitter, to name a few. Given this widespread generation and consumption of content, it is natural to target one’s messages to highly connected people who will propagate them further in the social network.

The influence that the social media has had in co-coordinating public opinion on the fuel subsidy issue has been immensely proven the power of the social media in our society.

The ever-increasing amount of information owing through Social Media forces the members of these networks to compete for attention and influence by relying on other people to spread their message.

This chapter allows for the terse summary and recommendation on the any further research on this study.


SUMMARY

The social unrest that ensured at the beginning of the year in Nigeria called for some intellectual and academic purview and scrutiny of the situation. Thus, it was an ideal journey to embark upon; knowing some factors that are responsible for this seemingly global phenomenon. So the study was basically on the influence of social media on mass mobilization of people during the strike action. The study made used of technology determinism by Marshal Mc Luhan, who believed that each technology that is created tends to shape and mound the society. This has been seen since the advent of social media, it has change the people thinking and it has “retribalised” the people. Thus, the social media has helped in the “retribalisng” the thought of the people towards some things which have invariably change the normal status quo. So the society is subject to technological advancement and development. The second theory that was considered for this study application was agenda setting by Maxwell and Donald Shaw. It is a theory that believes that media dictates what makes the news and what the people will  like to  know. In this perspective, the social media have act as a medium to inform people about what is  happening and have able to dictates what the people would know. The chapter three dwelled on the method of studying the research. The researcher made used of survey; distributing questionnaire to sample the opinion of Nigerians. Chapter four gave a graphical presentation of the data garnered by the survey method.

CONCLUSION

It is however suffice to say that after , putting different consideration in place, following the scientific method, and analyzing the data, it logical to believe that social media contributed, not the major, to the mass mobilization of the of the Nigerian society for the strike action. To a greater extent now that social media has become a force to reckon with in the world of globalization. The research imperceptibly pointed out the fact that social media can compete favorably with the contemporary media.

RECOMMENDATION

For further futuristic research on this study, it is pertinent to point out some recommendation at which the research should be on to:

  •  That further research should be on the behavior of the people that make use of  social media
  • That future study on this issues should consider a wider demographical sample
  • Government should be able to make use of this media to enhance its relationship with the people
  • That further orientation should be send to the people in the area of making them to the essence of technology and should embrace it more
  • That government should inculcate the use of social media in the its act of governance so as to avoid a repeat of the past events

BIBLIOGRAPHY

,F. & Tichenor, Ph.J. (Eds.)Gratification and Persuasion. In: Kline: Current Perspectives in Mass Communication Research. Beverly Hills, CA.: Sage.

Kleinnijenhuis, J. & Rietberg, E.M. (1995). Parties, media, the public and the economy: Patterns of societal agenda-setting. European journal of political research: official journal of the European Consortium for Political Research, 28(1), 95-118

McCombs, M.E & Shaw, D. (1972). The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media (36; 176-187) Newway publisher, New York, USA

McCombs, M.E. (1972). Mass Communication in Political Campaigns: Information, McCombs, M.E. (1982). The Agenda-Setting Approach In: Nimmo, D. & Sanders, K. (Eds.) Handbook of Political Communication. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

McCombs, M.E., & Shaw, D.L. (1972). The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36 (Summer,176-187),  Newway publisher, New York, USA

McCombs, ME., & Weaver D. (1973). Voters’ Need for Orientation and Use of Mass Communication. Presented at the annual conference of the International Communication Association. Montreal, Canada.

McCombs, M.E., & Weaver, D. (1985). Toward a Merger of Gratifications and Agenda-Setting Research. In: Rosengren, K.E., Wenner, L.A. & McCombs M.E., Shaw, D.L., & Weaver, D.L. (1997). Communication and Democracy: Exploring the Intellectual Frontiers in Agenda-Setting Theory. Mahwah, N.J. Lawrence Erlbaum, Bennet Prints, New York, USA

Palmgreen, P. (Eds.) Media Gratifications Research: Current Perspectives. Beverly Hills, CA.: Sage.

Rogers, E.M., & Dearing, J.W. (1988). Agenda-setting research: Where has it been? Where is it going? In: Anderson, J.A. (Ed.). Communication yearbook 11 (555-594). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Rogers, E.M., Hart, W. B., & Dearing, J.W. (1997). A paradigmatic history of agenda-setting research. In Iyengar, S. & Reeves, R. (Eds.) Do the media govern? Politicians, voters, and reporters in America (225-236). Thousand Oak, CA: Sage.

 

ONLINE SOURCES

http://ynaija.com
http://bayoomoboriowo.com/2012/01/occupy-nigeria-the-lagos-protest – photography
http://el-rufai.org

Guardian news- www.guardiannews.com (a US based newspaper)

www.saharareporters.com
www.Omojuwa.com
www.CP–Africa.com

Reuters homepage- www.reuters.com

The nation newspaper online; article on Nigeria protest of January 10,2012

Wikipedia-www.wikipedia.com

 

Questionnaire

Questionnaire

Dear respondent,

This questionnaire is a prerequisite demand for research on a topic, the influence of social media for mass mobilization during the just concluded Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) strike: a study of students of university of Lagos, as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for a course(inter comm.). Your total honesty and truthfulness is required in the answering of the questions beneath. Be sure that your information would be held in absolute secrecy.

Thank you for your co-operation.

Tick appropriately your desired answer

What is your level of internet usage?

  1. Do you know what internet is?

(a)Yes              (b) No

  1. Do you make use of the internet?

(a)Yes              (b) No

  1. How often do you make of the internet?

(a)Very often  (b) Not very often

  1. With what device do you connect to the internet?

(a)Computer    (b)mobile phone          (c) both

  1. What do you do most on the internet?

(a)    Social networking             (b) Research

  1. If you picked option (a) in quest. 5, what is your level of social media usage?

(a)    Very high  (b)medium       (c)low

  1. Where did learn about the strike?

(a)Television    (b)radio               (c)internet

  1. Did you participate in the protest of the just concluded NLC’s strike?

(a)Yes              (b)No

  1. Were the information gotten from the social media during the strike real?

(a)Yes              (b)No

  1. What is the level of information concerning the strike gotten via social media during the strike?

(a)Very high    (b) medium                  (c)low

  1. Do you know about the occupy Nigeria concept?

(a)Yes              (b)No

  1. If yes, where did you learn it from?

(a)Media                      (b) social media

Did you think that occupy Nigeria concept gave useful information during the strike?

(a)Yes              (b) No

  1. Do you think that occupy Nigeria concept help in the gathering of people for the protest?

(a)Yes              (b) No

  1. How did you protest?

(a)Marching     (b) Carrying placard               (c) posting your comment via social media

  1. Did the information learnt via social media prompt your reason for joining the protest?

(a)Yes              (b) No

Do you think social media help the mobilization of people for protest during the strike?

(a)    Yes                        (b)No

What gender are you?

Male

Female

What is your age category?

18- 21

22-24

25-27

28-30

What your level of income?

Below 10,000

10,000-20,000

Above 20,000

What level are you in?

100 level

200 level

300 level

400 level

COPYRIGHT BY:

GROUP FOUR ( INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION)

BAKARE SAMUEL

FAWEHINMI TAJUDEEN

OGUNSANYA ADEDAYO

OBOT WINIFRED

AKINTUNDE ESTHER

SEHINDE OLAIDE

KUJERO BLESSING

OMITOKUN OMOLOLA

ADELEKE DAMILOLA

SALAMI JEMILAT OSEIZA

UJU ONYEKACHI

EBOMUCHE SANDRA

ADEDIRAN ADEDAPOSOLA

HASSAN OLUBUKOLA

SOLOMON SAMUEL

TOKOSI DAMILOLA

ABIOLA DEBORAH

FODEKE OLAMIDE

OSIYOYE TEMILOLUWA

SHOFUNDE RUKAYAT

ADIGUN TAIWO

 

Feb
27

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